Lund Oil, Inc.

Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) 

DEF is a solution used in modern diesel engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to reduce harmful emissions. Here is an overview: 

Composition: DEF is a non-toxic, colorless liquid composed primarily of de-ionized water and urea (32.5%). It is carefully standardized and regulated for purity and concentration. 

Function: When injected into the exhaust stream of a diesel engine, DEF vaporizes and decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide. These compounds then enter the SCR system, where they react with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust, converting them into nitrogen and water vapor. This process significantly reduces the levels of NOx, a major air pollutant and contributor to smog and acid rain. 

Usage and Handling: DEF is stored in a dedicated tank in diesel vehicles equipped with SCR technology. It is consumed at a rate of about 2-6% of diesel consumption, meaning that vehicles will need periodic refilling of DEF. It is important to handle DEF carefully as it can corrode some metals and needs to be stored at temperatures above 12°F (-11°C) to prevent freezing. 

Environmental Impact: By reducing NOx emissions, DEF plays a critical role in helping diesel engines meet stringent emission standards like those set by the EPA in the United States and the European Union’s Euro standards. This contributes to better air quality and a lower environmental footprint for diesel engines. 

Availability and Regulations: DEF is widely available at auto parts stores, gas stations, and service stations. It is also subject to regulations regarding its composition and quality to ensure it effectively reduces emissions without damaging the SCR system. 

Importance in Modern Diesel Engines: With increasing environmental concerns and stricter emission norms, the use of DEF and SCR technology has become essential for modern diesel engines. It allows these engines to offer better fuel efficiency while minimizing their environmental impact. 

Handling Precautions: While DEF is non-toxic and safe to handle, it can corrode certain metals and should be kept away from them. If spilled, it should be cleaned up quickly to prevent crystallization and potential slip hazards. 

Vehicle Indicator Lights: Modern diesel vehicles equipped with SCR technology often have indicator lights on the dashboard to alert drivers when DEF levels are low. It is important to refill DEF as soon as these indicators activate to avoid reduced engine performance or even shutdown in some systems. 

Economic Considerations: Running out of DEF can significantly reduce a vehicle’s fuel efficiency and potentially lead to increased operational costs. In some cases, engines are programmed to limit performance or shut down entirely to prevent running without DEF. 

Environmental Regulations: In some regions, the use of DEF is not just for environmental protection but also a legal requirement. Failure to maintain proper DEF levels can lead to non-compliance with environmental regulations, resulting in fines and penalties. 

Impact on Vehicle Maintenance: Regular checks of DEF levels should be part of routine vehicle maintenance. Also, the SCR system should be inspected regularly to ensure its functioning correctly and efficiently using DEF. 

Bulk Purchasing and Dispensing System: For fleet operators or those with multiple diesel vehicles, investing in bulk DEF and a dispensing system can be cost-effective. However, it is crucial to ensure that the storage and dispensing systems are compatible with DEF and meet regulatory standards. 

Understanding these aspects can help in effectively managing and maintaining vehicles that require DEF, ensuring compliance with environmental regulations, and optimizing performance and longevity of the SCR system.